All rights reserved. Animals may be less likely to struggle if the hind limbs can rest on a surface such as the cage top or a counter top. Another limitation is that most animals must be grasped at the scruff in order to read the code, thus increasing the times they are handled. Ear tags should be sterile or disinfected prior to placement. Use of „by-products‟ from these techniques to provide material . Tattooing Tattooing is a means of permanent identification. Several methods are particularly well suited for identifying cage mates. Food coloring may be used to dye a patch of fur; such marks generally last for 1-2 weeks but can be used only on albino and light-colored mice. Ear Tags Tags must be appropriately size for species and age. Experimental protocols often require mice to undergo repeated procedures that can cause pain or discomfort. ear punch, tag, microchip) are not appropriate. This policy is intended for use by mouse users when individual mouse pup identification is required prior to an age when other methods (e.g. Once the tag is gone, wipe the ear with an antiseptic soaked cotton-applicator stick, and return the animal to its cage. A felt tip marker may be used for marking an ear or tail; such marks usually disappear in 1-2 days. Tags can be lost due to over-grooming, dermatitis or infection, self-trauma inflicted trying to remove tags due to intolerance, fighting, and aggressive breeding behavior. The tattoo is placed on the tail, toe or ear. Non-toxic markers: Sharpies can be used to mark the tail or fur of rodents, however the mark must be reapplied every 24 hours to ensure the mark is still visible. However, ear tags are more difficult to read than tattoos and can fall out, and mice usually require restraint for … A. Certain experimental protocols require genotyping of neonates as early as day one, which makes it essential that these pups be permanently identified. Holes in the center of the right and left pinna represent 100 and 200, respectively. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to reach out to our customer success team. Slip the tag out so that the crimped end does not pass through causing trauma and enlargement of the piercing hole. When you release, the tagged ear will fall out of the applier. • Place tag appropriately into applicator device. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. Here, we will use a metal tag to demonstrate the procedure on mice. Please refer to our privacy policy for more information. Tags have a three digit numbering system. These include: metal tags that have a series of numbers and/or letters etched on them, and plastic tags with characters or barcodes on brightly colored backgrounds. If positioned too close to the head, the skin of the neck area can catch in the tag, creating irritation, pain, and restricted movement, which can then lead to self-trauma. 1980. Ear tagging procedure as a means of identification must be described on an approved IACUC protocol. Improperly placed ear tags can become easily detached from the ear. Ear punching of weaning mice does not require anesthesia. Now, let's move on to ear tagging, which is another inexpensive and easy-to-perform method for the individual identification of mice and rats. Ear tagging involves using a special applicator to place an "earring," or metal tag with an identification number, in the pinna of a mouse's ear. As you might have guessed, ear punching involves punching a hole or a notch in the animal's external ear or pinna. This protocol measures the extent to which individual mice discount the value of delayed food. Ear tagging requires a special applicator to place an “earring” or metal tag with an identification number in the pinna of a mouse or rat’s ear. Ear Tagging Ear tagging involves the placement of a metal or plastic tag with a unique identification number or code to the base of the rodent’s ear. Correct application of cattle … Newport, KY 41071, USA, Mailing Address: Co., Inc., located in Lake Luzerne, New York, has been making millions of metal animal identification tags every year for customers nationwide. Microchips are about the size of a grain of rice and transmit a unique alphanumeric code for each mouse. If the problem continues, please, An unexpected error occurred. The tagging system requires the application of two identically numbered yellow plastic ear tags to calves born on a holding within 20 days of birth. These conditions can be exacerbated by improper placement. Ear tagging. In order to remove the tag, moisten a cotton-tipped applicator with an antiseptic solution and use it to remove any debris from around the tag. • Place the tag near to the base of the ear, approximately 3mm from the edge of the pinna. Ear tags can be imprinted by the manufacturer with several digits or letters. If you prefer to have the ear tag numbers facing the nose of the animal, place the point of the tag at the base of the pinna on the back of the ear and then squeeze to lock the tag in place. Occasionally, metal tags can cause irritation and swelling of the ear. However, if you plan to use the punches for collecting PCR samples, remember to first soak the apparatus in a surface decontaminant solution for at least 3 minutes to remove residual DNA or RNA, and then rinse with alcohol before use. The tag fit into the natural curve of the ear and is applied on conscious mice from weaning age upward. Importantly, do not cut across the flat surface as that will compress the tag, pinch the ear, and cause damage to the ear. 2. To close the puncture wound created by the implant, we recommend using a tissue adhesive (Nexaband* or Nexaband* S/C, manufactured by Closure Medical Corporation, Raleigh, NC 27616, distributed by Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL 60064). And again, different combinations will cover the range of 10 through 90. The holes and notches are placed according to a predetermined code (Dickie 1975; Ingalis 1980; Stark and Ostrow 1991). In severe cases of infection, the animal may need to be anesthetized. Once the animal is restrained, position the point of the ear tag deeply in the concha of the ear so the tag numbers face the back of the animal. We recommend downloading the newest version of Flash here, but we support all versions 10 and above. Using hemostats, gently guide the ear tag through and out of the ear. To learn more about our GDPR policies click here. A two (2) millimeter ear punch or marginal notch is recommended. The ear tag should not be applied until the day of weaning. Copyright © 2020 MyJoVE Corporation. The rational for this is that toes can be clipped anytime from P7 until around 13 days of age Most mice will defecate within a minute of being picked up. Avoid pulling or twisting the punch to prevent tearing the ear. Now that you know how to mark the lab animals using ear tags and punches, let's review some experiments in which these methods can be useful. FDA approved tattoo pigment must be used. Ear tagging and ear marking are used to identify livestock. Used to analyze web traffic to improve the user experience. Call 859-261-2035. To make a notch, place the punch on the edge of the ear pinna at the correct spot, in this case at the top of the right ear for the "three" in the code's unit place, and do the same - apply quick and firm pressure and then open the scissor to remove it. Please check your Internet connection and reload this page. Avoid autoclaving the ear punches, as it will eventually dull them. Use pigment approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. First, the ear punch code discussed above has an upper limit of 399, which may limit the use of this method in some large-scale studies. Mice do not need to be anesthetized to be ear-punched. When you are ready to apply the ear tag, restrain the animal so that the ears are easily accessible. After the dark period (16–24 h), the mean MAP was 102.6 (0.5) mmHg after the ear tattoo, 102.9 (0.4) mmHg after the ear notching and 101.2 (0.5) mmHg after the microtattoo. ® Ear Tagging Technique in Mice. Ear tagging: A metal tag with a unique identification number is attached to one ear of the rodent. A. Ear-punching: Application of a specific combination of small hole punches or notches to the outside edges of a rodent’s ear (see Appendix, Figure 1). Next, apply pressure to close the scissor quickly and firmly to cut through the skin. Consult your institutions ACUC for accepted protocols. 14 days or older No anesthesia is required when performed by trained personnel Ear tagging can lead to pressure necrosis, ulcerations, inflammation, neoplasia and infection. Ear Tagging Identification At weaning or older None required Skill and technique is important. 3. BASIC PROTOCOL 1: Adjusting amount procedure. IACUC protocol. Other number sequences available by special order. If that doesn't help, please let us know. A metal ID tag placed in the mouse ear pinna with a special applicator. Suitable for mice Custom order tags available It can be used as a method of mouse identification, and the ear tissue could be used for genotyping. As always, thanks for watching! The differences between ear tattoo versus microtattoo and ear notching versus microtattoo were statistically significant (P < 0.05) (Figure 4 and Table 1). Now, let's move on to ear tagging, which is another inexpensive and easy-to-perform method for the individual identification of mice and rats. The pointed end of the tag should be opposite the notch. If the problem continues, please. Policy: Toe clipping for the purposes of identification and/or genotyping may be approved in the animal protocol under the following circumstances: Now let's learn how to properly apply an ear tag, as incorrect positioning can have several unfortunate consequences. If the ear tag uses Radio Frequency Identification Device technology it is referred to as an electronic ear tag.Electronic ear tags conform to international standards ISO 11784 and ISO 11785 working at 134.2 kHz, as well as ISO/IEC 18000-6C operating in the UHF spectrum. In contrast, plastic tags are easy to read without having to handle the animals. We use distal toe clipping. Ear tagging involves using a special applicator to place an "earring," or metal tag with an identification number, in the pinna of a mouse's ear. Let's use the code 173 and scissor punch as examples here. Repeat the same procedure on the other ear to punch three notches - two for "20" near the outer corner and one for "50" near the inner corner, totaling the code to "70". Then, using wire cutters, cut across the top of the tag loop from edge to edge. Because tags are relatively large and mouse ears develop quickly, ear tagging is suitable only for weanling and older mice. Ergonomically, the lever punch is easier to use than thumb punch, especially for the thicker ears of the older rats. The authors conclude that the welfare benefits of tunnel handling are widely applicable. Biology of the Laboratory Mouse. A patch of fur on the back or side of the mouse may be shaved; such marks generally last 1-4 weeks (depending on stage of the hair cycle) and can be used on any color mouse. While being tattooed, neonatal mice are manually restrained. Then, firmly squeeze the applier closed; the ear tag will pierce the ear and lock together. In addition to considering cost, the ease of the technique and the level of pain to the animals should be some of the primary considerations when choosing the appropriate identification method. This often leads to infections of the pinna, and the immediate treatment should include the removal of the tag. Rao and Edmondson (1990) monitored implanted mice for two years and found that 1) implants cause little tissue reaction, 2) only 2% of the mice lose their chips, and 3) only 2.8% of the chips fail. Before you tattoo a mouse, disinfect its skin and the tattoo needles. Before being implanted, mice are either sedated or anesthetized. Following are the names and addresses of some companies that sell animal identification tools. B. Ear-tagging: Attachment of a metal or plastic tag with a unique identification number or code to the base of a rodent’s ear. If the tag is placed too close to the edge of the ear, it can easily be torn. Caution should be used to avoid cross-contamination of samples. Ear punching, commonly used for identification of rodents, involves using a special punch to either produce a small (0.5-2 mm) notch near the edge of the ear or to punch a hole in the middle of the ear. There are a variety of commercially available ear tags. You may decline these cookies although certain areas of the site may not function without them. If you would like to continue using JoVE, please let your librarian know as they consider the most appropriate subscription options for your institution’s academic community. Dickie, MM. Risk of infection or tag falling out. It is essential for investigators to be able to distinguish between individual animals so that the correct animal is used for experimental procedures and data collection. It also has business benefits by enabling livestock to be identified on-farm, leading to improved management. • Soak ear tags in alcohol or other disinfectant prior to application. FDA-approved pigment on the tail, toe or ear to identify mice of any age. I have seen instances where ear notches and punctures were healed with scar tissues, making it difficult to identify animals. Again, clean the punch with a disinfectant, rinse with alcohol and dry it thoroughly to prevent rusting. And holes in both indicate 300. UID Microchip Implant. Gently remove the tag from the cardboard holder and orient it into the applier so that the end with the hole is positioned over the notched area of the applier. As rats age, the skin of their ears thickens and it is difficult to perform ear punch without causing significant distress to the animal. Ear Tags Ear tags are another means for identifying mice. The applicator tip and ear tags should be disinfected before they are used. Tattooing is the preferred method for identifying neonatal mice. Older mice are either placed in a restraining device or sedated. WEB Administration Of Drugs and Experimental Compounds in Mice and Rats Updated January 1, 2014 PDF Animal Care Consent to Treat Updated July 26, 2016 PDF Animal Care Med Campus Animal Order Form Updated May 21, 2020 The codes are easily distinguished from one another by a computer. Ear tags may be troublesome to a mouse, and sometimes they fall out or tear out. Description of procedure: RAPID TAGs are small medical-grade, bar-coded devices that are placed in the center of the ear of mice for identification. Start with the hole for 100. Before using an ear punch, it should be tested to make sure it works properly and the cutting edge should be disinfected. The use of toe tattooing allows such animals to be identified until they are large enough for ear tagging or ear punching. Guidelines for Tissue Collection for Genotyping Mice and Rats Purpose ... Pinna biopsy is considered similar to tagging the ear and results in minimal or transient associated pain and distress17. 4.2.3. Animals must be 14 days or older. Next, in order to quantify cancer progression, they imaged the animals using bioluminescence at one, ten and eighteen days post injection. The punched-out ear tissue may be sufficient to perform PCR genotyping. Other companies may also sell them. New York, New York: Pergamon Press; 323 p. Rao GH, J Edmondson. The three most commonly found options are ear tagging, ear notching or distal toe clipping. See more video protocols, please visit http://www.video-protocols.com UID microchips are MRI, Gamma/X-Ray and Ultrasound compatible. Before starting the procedure, it is recommended that punching tools be cleaned with a disinfectant solution,rinsed with alcohol, and dried thoroughly. The JoVE video player is compatible with HTML5 and Adobe Flash. Remember, each technique has their advantages and disadvantages, which must be considered in relation to your experimental needs. 1. Scientists have developed several permanent and temporary methods to identify individual lab animals. The first step is to select an appropriate tag for the animals to be identified. The scissor punch does not require a pinching motion, thus avoiding carpal tunnel fatigue and injury. Using different combinations of these notches, and summing up the value for each notch, you can label the animal from 1 through 9. Supplied in packages of 500 numbered 001 to 500 or 501 to 1000. A JoVE representative will be in touch with you shortly. Methods for permanently identifying mice include ear punching, ear tagging, tattooing, and subcutaneously implanting a numerically coded microchip. Be sure to order the applier that is appropriate for the specific size and style of ear tags being used. We use/store this info to ensure you have proper access and that your account is secure. AALAS training manual series, vol 1: Assistant laboratory animal technician. Ear and tags should be disinfected prior to placement to minimize potential for infection. For adult rats that require identification, the use of inhalant anesthesia should be considered when performing ear punches. Keeping Records. At this time, the animal should be identified by an appropriate method (ear tag, transponder, ear punch,…) 6 Another advantage to plastic tags is their compatibility with MRI imaging. Tissue reaction to an implantable identification device in mice. Stark, DM and ME Ostrow, editors. There are a variety of commercially available ear tags. Male and female BALB/c mice … One major advantage of using ear punch code is that the punches can double as tissue samples for genotyping, thus reducing stress to the animals caused due to repeat handling. Ear-tagging: Attachment of a metal or plastic tag with a unique identification number or code to the base of a rodent’s ear. To circumvent this problem, a secondary form of identification such as a punch code on the ear opposite of the tag should be utilized. Confirm that the tag has been properly positioned and applied. If there is a purulent discharge from the ear, follow-up treatment may be necessary and consultation with the veterinary staff for assessment is recommended. In: Green EL, editor. Therefore, for example, if you want to label the animal 173, you ought to punch a hole in center of right ear for 100, three notches in the left year summing the total to 70, and a single notch in the top right ear representing the unit's place "three". These Ear Tags are for use with mice and rats and similarly sized animals. The tattoo is placed on a toe or tail. Each of these has their advantages and disadvantages. Guidelines for Genotyping Laboratory Mice and Rats. New York, New York: Dover Publications; 706 p. Ingalis, JK. Ear punching can be done at age 14 days or older without anesthesia. If that does n't help, please visit http: //www.video-protocols.com 2 tagging or ear reaction. 10 through 90 excellent corrosion resistance, strength and ductility be able to see the first step is select. Tags tags must be appropriately size for species and age on an approved IACUC protocol may! Older rats return the animal 's external ear or pinna video codec will still use a video. 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'Ve just watched JoVE 's presentation demonstrating the two most commonly found options are ear tagging is suitable only weanling! Therefore, it should be tested to make sure it works properly and the video. Widely applicable mice are either placed in a restraining device or sedated dull them weanling older! Which must be considered when performing ear punches 10 through 90 your institutional access, and/or other products! Cut across the top of the tag out so that the ears easily... To improved management to control both the body and the cutting edge should be used or other disinfectant to. Is positioned away from the edge of the right ear in the mouse ear pinna with a alphanumeric. How to properly apply an ear tag done at age 14 days or older without....