1. Swedish Infantry Gustavus Adolphus, a key reformer of armed forces in the 17th century, was crowned king of Sweden at age 17. Reversed the course of the war so dramatically that it has been regarded as the most decisive engagement of the long conflict. Gustavus Adolphus fell at the Battle of Lutzen in 1632 (though his army still won). He had an agreement with France. Gustavus Adolphus faced big problems when he came to the Swedish throne in 1611. -- Secret Triumph of Wallenstein. Clearly Wilson does not like his war and the politics of the war to be too dramatic and in this he clearly differs from his publishers who have printed on the cover of the book a quotation from one of Gustavus Adolphus’s letters: ‘This is a fight between God and the Devil. Protestant 2. Now of course I'm aware Gustavus was the King of Sweden but between the modern era and the 1600's when he lived, there were many kings and many commanders. He was well prepared for the greatest war of his life. A tactical genius and military innovator, Gustavus II Adolphus was a war captain soldiers could follow with pride. He really won one victory, at Breitenfeld, lost at Alte Veste and got killed at Luetzen. He was born in Stockholm, to Duke Charles from the Vasa Dynasty. -- Gustavus Adolphus defends Nuremberg. His tactics were to repeatedly send his troops in frontal attacks on Imperials. Even after 1955, other historians of Gustavus or the Thirty Years’ War do not immediately debate the “military revolution” theory. Historians are divided on why Gustavus chose to join the war, which had begun as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire (now Germany), following the election of Catholic Emperor Ferdinand II who was trying to impose his religion on the Empire. The northern German territories would remain Protestant. Yet, in this stage of the war, “The Lion of the North” or “the Golden King”, as Gustavus Adolphus the Great of Sweden was known, entered the conflict. Why was there overwhelming success in the victory at Breitenfeld? Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war; KEY POINTS. Gustavus Adolphus is one of the most inspiring characters of the Reformation. The rapid rise to fame of Gustavus Adolphus, the young King of Sweden, his military innovations and dramatic victories in battle turned the tide in The Thirty Years War … Gustavus was crowned at age 17 when his father, Karl IX, died prematurely in the midst of the bitter War of Kalmar with Denmark.… -- Gustavus takes Munich. 2. His achievements must surely have inspired Peter the Great to do the same for Russia. Among the Swedes besides Gustavus, Baner and Torstensson stand out. Gustavus Adolphus. Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Bärwald of the 23rd of January 1631. Sources The Thirty Years War by C. V. Wedgwood Gustavus Adolphus and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence by C. R. L. Fletcher One of the greatest military leaders of all time, Gustavus seemed poised to turn the tide of the conflict in favor of the northern European Protestants. The Swedish army was a product of several military reforms and innovations. The Thirty Years War consisted of multiple phases, lasting from 1618 to 1648. The Thirty Years’ War resulted in no outright winner when peace was signed between the major belligerents in 1648. -- The Saxon Army invades Bohemia, and takes Prague. Richelieu. With all these elements, Gustavus was able to create a cohesive, well disciplined army, with tactics that integrated the infantry, cavalry and artillery. Sweden’s King Gustavus Adolphus, with his flowing blond hair and unfailing courage, won the title “Lion of the North” among his countrymen, his allies and his enemies. Under his reign, Sweden emerged as a great power in Europe. The most important historiographical debate pertaining to Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years’ War is, in fact, one that is not even discussed until 1955—the “military revolution” debate. Gustavus Adolphus was an accomplished soldier and with the help of Catholic France, he freed himself from the war against Poland with the Treaty of Altmark of September 1629. Why? ... threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. -- Junction of Wallenstein with the Bavarians. His country was poor and sparsely populated, but already the ambitious young “Lion of Midnight” (that is, of the North) intended to enrich it with new lands and looted wealth. After reading Peter Wilson's Europe's Tragedy: The history of the 30 Years War I don't understand why Gustavus Adolphus is so respected as a general. The organisation of the Swedish army with its smaller unit sizes and higher numbers of NCOs and junior officers also became the standard model for Europe. Cardinal Richelieu was also France entered openly into the war in 1635. “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Fighting the Holy Roman Empire – Part I On 9 December 1594, Gustav II Adolf was born. ); widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus, or as Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Swedish language: Gustav Adolf den store, Latin language: Gustavus Adolphus Magnus, a formal posthumous distinction passed by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634); was the King of Sweden from 1611 … The initial phase, what historians refer to as the Bohemian Revolt, was a result of the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, attempting to assert imperial and Catholic control over territories that had broken away during the Reformation. ... threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. Gustavus Adolphus day is marked in Sweden on 6 November. He is accredited with elevating Sweden to a position of immense political, military, and religious stature through his involvement in the Thirty Years War. However, Gustavus was also responsible for many domestic reforms which pushed Sweden from being just another Baltic state to being the most dominant power in the region. He was the financier behind the various Protestant coalitions and interventions (including that of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden),and it was Richelieu that convinced Louis XIII that France had to enter the war directly to prevent a total Hapsburg victory after the Swedish army and its Weimariner allies were destroyed at Nordlingen in 1634. It was Gustavus’ decision to enter into the Thirty Years’ War in 1630 that he is most famous for internationally. The 1.5 million Swedes were surrounded by enemies with 14 times their population. F. Solano Lopez, the megalomaniac dictator of Paraguay in 1870, was killed in battle. Lutzen was a pyrrhic victory for the Protestants, who had lost thousands of their best men and their greatest leader. What were the other results of the Thirty Years' War? What side did France join during the Thirty Years War? Gustavus is the only Swedish monarch to have been granted the title of ‘Magnus’, meaning ‘Great’, posthumously making his full title Gustavus Adolphus Magnus. So I've been reading a lot of literature and many, many modern figures often refer to Gustavus Adolphus as the "Father of (modern) War". And his country was at war … King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden declared against the emperor. Gustavus Adolphus was the king of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 and is remembered as one of the greatest rulers in European history. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. Gustavus Adolphus: A History of the Art of War from Its Revival After the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession War, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of the Great Swede, and of the Most Famous Campaign of Turenne, Condé, Eugene and Marlborough, Volume 2 Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S. Give the date and the terms of the Peace of Westphalia. 2. 1. 1. France feared the growth of Hapsburg power. Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war; KEY POINTS. When Gustavus Adolphus was killed, Sweden became just another faction in a complex network of interested parties, but throughout the remainder of the war, it was an important faction. -- Wallenstein re-assumes the Command. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. The only way… Gustavus Adolphus saw himself as the protector of Protestantism in Germany and if north Germany was safe then so was Sweden. Gustavus Adolphus lead Sweden during her glory years in the Thirty Years War. In the end, it played a significant role in creating the terms for the peace treaty. Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. Gustavus Adolphus’ effective use of supply magazines, linear tactics and use of lighter artillery and firearms were steadily adopted by all the European powers. “Lion of Midnight” (that is, of the North). -- Distress of the Emperor. —Nils Ahnlund, Gustavus Adolphus the Great. Adolphus’s campaigns in Sweden, Poland, and Germany are covered and the idea, I think, was to explain grand strategy. 1618 2. a. 1. The military genius of Gustavus Adolphus. -- He offers to Join Gustavus Adolphus. In 1630, the Protestant forces were on their heels when Gustavus Adolphus, the Protestant king of Sweden, intervened, pushing the Catholic Imperial army out of much of Germany. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. One of the king’s great achievements, looking at his reign from perhaps his viewpoint, was the creation of an army that did great things on the battlefield, but more detail would have been welcome. Also known as Gustav II and Gustav Adolph. Gustavus’s cousin Sigismund was the king of Sweden when Gustavus was born. Gustavus Adolphus, the Golden King, the Lion of the North, and the Father of Modern Warfare was a 17th-century Swedish warrior-king who basically invented the concept of the cavalry sabre charge primarily because he wanted to lead thundering hordes of rampaging cavalry blade-first into the enemy – even though the dude couldn't even wear armor into combat because his ribs … The last European ruler to die in battle seems to have been Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. 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