[21] Continuous human habitation dates from the end of the last ice age, between 12,000 and 10,000 years before present (BP), when Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from central Europe began to migrate to Great Britain. [281] Initially excluded, religious denominations came to dominate the competitions, with bardic themes becoming scriptural and didactic. [159][161] The long summer days and short winter days result from Wales' northerly latitudes (between 53° 43′ N and 51° 38′ N). size from that of a modern county to that of a modern parish. The Kingdom of England, formed in 927, gained the first U.K. state other than itself through invasion. Bombing raids brought high loss of life as the German Air Force targeted the docks at Swansea, Cardiff and Pembroke. At the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete alongside those of Scotland, England and Northern Ireland as part of a Great Britain team. He was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism. [243] The Brythonic languages ceased to be spoken in of England and were replaced by the English language, which arrived in Wales around the end of the eighth century due to the defeat of the Kingdom of Powys. States/Regions in Wales: Cardiff: Biggest Cities: Swansea: Biggest Cities: Rhondda Cynon Taff: Biggest Cities: … Minimum number of hours of sunshine in a month: 2.7 hours at Llwynon, Maximum rainfall in a day (0900 UTC − 0900 UTC): 211 millimetres (8.3 in) at, Wettest spot – an average of 4,473 millimetres (176 in) rain a year at, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:36. Beach Resorts (a list) Ski Resorts (a list) Islands (a list) 6. It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh. At the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete for the UK as part of a Great Britain team. [342] Wales on Sunday is the only Welsh Sunday newspaper to cover the whole of Wales. [320] For historical reasons, five Welsh clubs play in the English football league system; Cardiff City, Swansea City, Newport County, Wrexham, and Merthyr Town. [119], Relations between Wales and foreign states are primarily conducted through the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in addition to the Foreign Secretary, and the British Ambassador to the United States. This term was later used to refer indiscriminately to inhabitants of the Western Roman Empire. The two main territories are the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory which function like states, but the federal parliament Of Australia can override any legislation of a territory parliament. River fish of note include char, eel, salmon, shad, sparling and Arctic char, whilst the gwyniad is unique to Wales, found only in Bala Lake. [88] For the first time in centuries, the population of Wales went into decline; unemployment reduced only with the production demands of the Second World War. [49] Another theory, after carbon dating placed the dyke's existence 300 years earlier, is that it was built by the post-Roman rulers of Wroxeter. By 8,000 BP the British Peninsula had become an island. [240], The Welsh language is an Indo-European language of the Celtic family;[242] the most closely related languages are Cornish and Breton. [140] Over 50 islands lie off the Welsh mainland; the largest being Anglesey, in the north-west. However, the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world. Sydney, Australia. [301] It was used by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, after which it was carried in state to St Paul's Cathedral. An early festivity was Mabsant when local parishes would celebrate the patron saint of their local church. Yet by 1906, industrial dissension and political militancy had begun to undermine Liberal consensus in the southern coalfields. [344] The BCW provides publishing grants for qualifying English- and Welsh-language publications. [95] Prior to the investiture of Charles in 1969, these groups were responsible for a number of bomb attacks on infrastructure. [335][337] ITV, the UK's main commercial broadcaster, has a Welsh-oriented service branded as ITV Cymru Wales, whose studios are in Cardiff Bay. Consequently, the higher parts of Snowdonia experience average annual temperatures of 5 °C (41 °F). Skip to main content GOV.WALES uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. The Senior Courts of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. [67][74] The Marcher Lordships were abolished, and Wales began electing members of the Westminster parliament. This gave Wales the powers needed to make secondary laws that affect us by an act called the Government of Wales … Does pumpkin pie need to be refrigerated? Its output was mostly Welsh-language at peak hours but shared English-language content with Channel 4 at other times. Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke: "In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. [138][139] Wales has about 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline (along the mean high water mark), including the mainland, Anglesey and Holyhead. [137] Wales is bordered by England to the east and by sea in all other directions: the Irish Sea to the north and west, St George's Channel and the Celtic Sea to the southwest and the Bristol Channel to the south. [310] These include the 1958 Commonwealth Games,[311] the 1999 Rugby World Cup, the 2010 Ryder Cup and the 2017 UEFA Champions League Final. Chicken tikka masala is the country's favourite dish while hamburgers and Chinese food outsell fish and chips as a takeaway. The Western Mail is Wales' only national daily newspaper. [238] The resident population of Wales in 2011 increased by 5% since 2001 to 3,063,456, of whom 1,504,228 are men and 1,559,228 women, according to the 2011 census results. [85] In December 1918, Lloyd George was re-elected at the head of a Conservative-dominated coalition government, and his poor handling of the 1919 coal miners' strike was a key factor in destroying support for the Liberal party in south Wales. The first Independent Church in Wales was founded at Llanvaches in 1638 by William Wroth. [209][210], A distinct education system has developed in Wales. [159] Temperatures in Wales remain higher than would otherwise be expected at its latitude because of the North Atlantic Drift, a branch of the Gulf Stream. [207] Other internal flights operate to northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. [222][223], Public healthcare in Wales is provided by NHS Wales (GIG Cymru), originally formed as part of the NHS structure for England and Wales by the National Health Service Act 1946, but with powers over the NHS in Wales coming under the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969. [332] Tommy Farr, the "Tonypandy Terror", came close to defeating world heavyweight champion Joe Louis at the height of his fame in 1937. [336] The broadcaster also produces programmes such as Life on Mars, Doctor Who and Torchwood for BBC's network audience across the United Kingdom. Marcher Law and Welsh Law (for civil cases) remained in force until Henry VIII of England annexed the whole of Wales under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (often referred to as the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1543), after which English law applied to the whole of Wales. 1885 saw the publication of Rhys Lewis by Daniel Owen, credited as the first novel written in the Welsh language. [227] A 2009 Welsh health survey reported that 51 per cent of adults reported their health good or excellent, while 21 per cent described their health as fair or poor. The New South Wales In-Demand Occupation List is updated periodically according to the … [15] The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as names such as the Cambrian Mountains and the Cambrian geological period. [199] The A55 expressway has a similar role along the north Wales coast, connecting Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). [191][192] Wales like Northern Ireland has relatively few high value-added employment in sectors such as finance and research and development, attributable in part to a comparative lack of 'economic mass' (i.e. Torfaen now has the highest case rate in Wales, jumping to 453.4 per 100,000 in the last week and also has a positivity rate of 22.4% - also the highest in Wales. [226] In 2006, there were seventeen district hospitals in Wales. [323], In international cricket, Wales and England field a single representative team, administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), called the England cricket team, or simply 'England'. It was believed that the foundations for stable economic growth had been firmly established in Wales during this period, but this was shown to be optimistic after the recession of the early 1980s saw the collapse of much of the manufacturing base that had been built over the preceding forty years. [338] S4C, based in Carmarthen, first broadcast on 1 November 1982. Teaching and leadership. Youth work and engagement The states include New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, and the island state of Tasmania. [257] The second largest attending faith in Wales is Roman Catholic, with an estimated 43,000 adherents. [368] Plays by Emlyn Williams and Alun Owen and others were staged, while Welsh actors, including Richard Burton and Stanley Baker, were establishing themselves as artistic talents. [264] There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs, mainly in the south Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion. Milnthorpe, Cumbria: Cicerone. [339] BBC Radio Cymru is the BBC's Welsh-language radio service, broadcasting throughout Wales. [136] The oft-quoted 'size of Wales' is about 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). [352] Although Wales has its own traditional food and has absorbed much of the cuisine of England, Welsh diets now owe more to the countries of India, China and the United States. [325] Wales has produced several world-class participants of individual and team sports including snooker players Ray Reardon, Terry Griffiths, Mark Williams and Matthew Stevens. [181] For the 2018–19 fiscal year, the Welsh fiscal deficit accounts for 19.4 percent of Wales' estimated GDP. [48], Having lost much of what is now the West Midlands to Mercia in the 6th and early 7th centuries, a resurgent late-7th-century Powys checked Mercian advances. [80], Historian Kenneth Morgan described Wales on the eve of the First World War as a "relatively placid, self-confident and successful nation". [77] By the 1820s, south Wales produced 40% of all Britain's pig iron. [148] The Gower Peninsula was the first area in the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, in 1956. Maredudd's great-grandson (through his daughter Princess Angharad) Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (r. 1039–63) conquered his cousins' realms from his base in Powys, and extended his authority into England. In 2007 the Wales and Cheshire Region (known as the Wales and Cheshire Circuit before 2005) came to an end when Cheshire was attached to the North-Western England Region. [113] The Assembly was in 2020 renamed Senedd Cymru – the Welsh Parliament. Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. [98] The next year, the Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was repealed and a legal definition of Wales and of the boundary with England were established. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate. [133][134], Wales is a generally mountainous country on the western side of central southern Great Britain. [114], The twenty areas of responsibility devolved to the Welsh Government, known as "subjects", include agriculture, economic development, education, health, housing, local government, social services, tourism, transport and the Welsh language. [246] Starting in the 1960s, many road signs have been replaced by bilingual versions. [160] The likelihood is that it will fall as sleet or snow when the temperature falls below 5 °C (41 °F) and snow tends to be lying on the ground there for an average of 30 days a year. Welsh in education. [83] The first quarter of the 20th century also saw a shift in the political landscape of Wales. ... Countries (a list) U.S. States Map; U.S. Cities; Reference Pages. [12] In Armes Prydain, believed to be written around 930–942, the words Cymry and Cymro are used as often as 15 times. [331] Other former boxing world champions include Enzo Maccarinelli, Freddie Welsh, Howard Winstone, Percy Jones, Jimmy Wilde, Steve Robinson and Robbie Regan. In the House of Commons – the lower house of the UK Parliament – Wales is represented by 40 MPs (out of 650) from Welsh constituencies. Two species of small rodent, the yellow-necked mouse and the dormouse, are of special Welsh note being found at the historically undisturbed border area. [233] Part of this increase can be attributed to the demographic transition seen in most industrialising countries during the Industrial Revolution, as death rates dropped and birth rates remained steady. Wales has hosted several international sporting events. 6,000 square miles (15,000 sq km) Population 5 Million County Town (capital): York * In 1974 Yorshire was divided into four smaller counties - West, North, south and East Riding. [301] The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal arms to signify their Welsh descent. The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such as Ruthin, Brecon and Cowbridge. [204][205][206], Cardiff Airport is the international airport of Wales. [87], After economic growth in the first two decades of the 20th century, Wales' staple industries endured a prolonged slump from the early 1920s to the late 1930s, leading to widespread unemployment and poverty. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation; the South Wales Coalfield's exploitation caused a rapid expansion of Wales' population. The percentage growth ranges from 0.32% to 0.96% adding around 10,000 to 30,000 people to the population every year. As the South Wales coalfield was exploited, Cardiff, Swansea, Penarth and Barry grew as world exporters of coal. [349][350] Welsh-language magazines include the current affairs titles Golwg (View) (published weekly) and Barn (Opinion) (monthly). Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh Language Society) was formed in 1962, in response to fears that the language might soon die out. [142][143] The 14 Welsh mountains, or 15 if including Garnedd Uchaf – often discounted because of its low topographic prominence – over 3,000 feet (910 metres) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s and are located in a small area in the north-west. [324] Occasionally, a separate Wales team play limited-overs competitions. The frontier region, and any English-held lordships in Wales, became known as Marchia Wallie, the Welsh Marches, in which the Marcher Lords were subject to neither English nor Welsh law. [250][251] Northern and western Wales retain many areas where Welsh is spoken as a first language by the majority of the population, and English learnt as a second language. [173] The pine marten, which has been sighted occasionally, has not been officially recorded since the 1950s. 5. Letters. [94] Separatist groupings, such as the Free Wales Army and Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru were formed, conducting campaigns from 1963. [252][253] Although monoglotism in young children continues, life-long monoglotism in Welsh no longer occurs. 2,540 (+3*) (*2 duplicates removed.) [219] Welsh is a compulsory subject in all of Wales' state schools for pupils aged 5–16 years old. How long will the footprints on the moon last? By its height in 1913, Wales was producing almost 61 million tons of coal. [37] Wales had a rich mineral wealth. [280] The output of this period was prolific in quantity but unequal in quality. [340], Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers available throughout Britain. [29][30] Over the following centuries they assimilated immigrants and adopted ideas from Bronze Age and Iron Age Celtic cultures. [159][160], Wales' wildlife is typical of Britain with several distinctions. [155][156] In the mid-19th century, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick used their studies of Welsh geology to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology. [154] Offa's Dyke was supposed to form an early distinct line but this was thwarted by Gruffudd ap Llewellyn, who reclaimed swathes of land beyond the dyke. Intra-Wales flights run between Anglesey (Valley) and Cardiff, operated since 2017 by Eastern Airways. By the late 18th century, the popularity of landscape art grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland. [230], The population of Wales doubled from 587,000 in 1801 to 1,163,000 in 1851 and had reached 2,421,000 by 1911. The change is linked to the nationalism of Saunders Lewis and the burning of the Bombing School on the Llŷn Peninsula in 1936. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national team. The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. [62], Owain Gwynedd's grandson Llywelyn Fawr (the Great, 1173–1240), received the fealty of other Welsh lords in 1216 at the council at Aberdyfi, becoming in effect the first Prince of Wales. "[105][n 2], Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. [193], The pound sterling is the currency used in Wales. 1. States and Regions in Wales in United Kingdom are listed below in order of decreasing population. [90], Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925, seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK. [367] In the 20th century a revival was led by Lois Blake (1890–1974). [96][97] At a by-election in 1966, Gwynfor Evans won the parliamentary seat of Carmarthen, Plaid Cymru's first Parliamentary seat. Both Welsh and English are official languages; over 560,000 Welsh-speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. [368] Anthony Hopkins is an alumnus of the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama,[369] and other notable Welsh actors include Michael Sheen and Catherine Zeta-Jones. Although slate quarrying has been described as 'the most Welsh of Welsh industries',[79] it is coal mining which became the industry synonymous with Wales and its people. [14], The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. [186] According to Professor Phil Williams, the Great Depression "devastated Wales", north and south, because of its "overwhelming dependence on coal and steel". About 78% of the land surface is harnessed for agriculture. Average annual coastal temperatures reach 10.5 °C (51 °F) and in low lying inland areas, 1 °C (1.8 °F) lower. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor. [294][295]The sculptor Sir William Goscombe John made works for Welsh commissions, although he had settled in London. [366] Drama in the early 20th century thrived, but the country established neither a Welsh National Theatre nor a national ballet company. The 20th century saw a move from verbose Victorian Welsh prose, with works such as Thomas Gwynn Jones's Ymadawiad Arthur. [276] Welsh poetry and native lore and learning survived the Dark Ages, through the era of the Poets of the Princes (c. 1100 – 1280) and then the Poets of the Gentry (c. 1350 – 1650). [n 1] The Germanic tribes who now dominated these lands were invariably called Saeson, meaning "Saxons". [177][178][179] Since the Second World War, the service sector has come to account for the majority of jobs, a feature typifying most advanced economies. The Romans used their engineering technology to extract large amounts of gold, copper and lead, as well as lesser amounts of zinc and silver. The last remnants of Celtic-tradition Welsh law were abolished and replaced by English law by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 during the reign of Henry VII's son, Henry VIII. Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. [245] Successive Welsh language acts, in 1942, 1967, 1993, and 2011, have improved the legal status of Welsh. Is there a way to search all eBay sites for different countries at once? population) – Wales lacks a large metropolitan centre. [131], Wales is served by four regional police forces, Dyfed-Powys Police, Gwent Police, North Wales Police and South Wales Police. [372] Diversions was formed in 1983, eventually becoming the National Dance Company Wales, now the resident company at the Wales Millennium Centre. "states". [145] The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog) are in the south (highest point Pen y Fan, at 886 metres (2,907 feet)),[146] and are joined by the Cambrian Mountains in Mid Wales (highest point Pumlumon, at 752 metres (2,467 feet)). There are no states in Wales. [220] While there has never been an exclusively Welsh-language college, Welsh-medium higher education is delivered through the individual universities and has since 2011 been supported by the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol (Welsh National College) as a delocalised federal institution. As well as its influence on Wales' coastal areas, air warmed by the Gulf Stream blows further inland with the prevailing winds. [319], Wales has had its own football league, the Welsh Premier League, since 1992. [159][160] The prevailing wind is south-westerly. Snow falls several times each winter in inland areas but is relatively uncommon around the coast. Providing links to European, African and North American destinations, it is about 12 miles (19 km) southwest of Cardiff city centre, in the Vale of Glamorgan. [187] However, much of the new industry was essentially of a "branch (or "screwdriver") factory" type where a manufacturing plant or call centre is in Wales but the most highly paid jobs in the company are elsewhere. [280] The industrialisation of south Wales saw a further shift with the likes of Rhydwen Williams who used the poetry and metre of a bygone rural Wales but in the context of an industrial landscape. [279] From the 16th century the proliferation of the 'free-metre' verse became the most important development in Welsh poetry, but from the middle of the 17th century a host of imported accentual metres from England became very popular. Initially, coal seams were exploited to provide energy for local metal industries but, with the opening of canal systems and later the railways, Welsh coal mining saw an explosion in demand. [144] The highest outside the 3000s is Aran Fawddwy, at 905 metres (2,969 feet), in the south of Snowdonia. [41][42] The earliest Welsh genealogies cite Maximus as the founder of several royal dynasties,[43][44] and as the father of the Welsh Nation. [322] At UEFA Euro 2016, the Wales national team achieved their best ever finish, reaching the semi-finals where they were beaten by eventual champions Portugal. [154] Even after the Act of Union, many of the borders remained vague and moveable until the Welsh Sunday Closing act of 1881, which forced local businesses to decide which country they fell within to accept either the Welsh or English law. The three divisions are the Court of Appeal; the High Court of Justice and the Crown Court. There are several sources in the destination country that may reveal where your ancestor came from. The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in 2003 were replaced in 2004 by the four regions: Cardiff Blues, Dragons, Ospreys and Scarlets. Scotland emerged from the First and Second Wars of Scottish Independen… [244] The Bible translations into Welsh and Protestant Reformation, which encouraged use of the vernacular in religious services, helped the language survive after Welsh elites abandoned it in favour of English in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes. [226] As newer, more expensive, diagnostic techniques and treatments became available, clinical work has been concentrated in newer, larger district hospitals. [147], Wales has three national parks: Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and Pembrokeshire Coast. [297], Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe. Christopher Williams, whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London. [237], The population in 1972 stood at 2.74 million and remained broadly static for the rest of the decade. 7. 80,342 (+802) Deaths People Tested Deaths. [277], Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits. [284] Major writers in the second half of the twentieth century include Emyr Humphreys (born 1919), who during his long writing career published over twenty novels,[285] and Raymond Williams (1921–1988). Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, the economy is based on the public sector, light and service industries, and tourism. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, Senedd Cymru – the Welsh Parliament, formerly known as the National Assembly for Wales – is responsible for a range of devolved policy matters. Average maximum temperatures range between 19 and 22 °C (66 and 72 °F). [269] Other sources of Welsh folklore include the 9th-century Latin historical compilation Historia Britonum (the History of the Britons) and Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th-century Latin chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae (the History of the Kings of Britain), and later folklore, such as The Welsh Fairy Book by W. Jenkyn Thomas. It is celebrated on 25 January in a similar way to St Valentine's Day. [247] Various public and private sector bodies have adopted bilingualism to a varying degree and (since 2011) Welsh is the only official language in any part of the United Kingdom. For other uses, see. [154] The Act of Union of 1536 formed a linear border stretching from the mouth of the Dee to the mouth of the Wye. originates from Wales; it means dwarf-dog or cor-ci. [269] The prose stories from the White and Red Books are known as the Mabinogion. Although Wales is joined with England by land, and is part of Great Britain, Wales is a country in its own right. The existing royal lordships of Montgomery and Builth remained unchanged. [345] Around 600–650 books are published each year, by some of the dozens of Welsh publishers. A spreadsheet with additional history and detail can be found here forum:1441477 . Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. [40] He is given as the ancestor of a Welsh king on the Pillar of Eliseg, erected nearly 500 years after he left Britain, and he figures in lists of the Fifteen Tribes of Wales. 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